In the earlier article, we had read about the cell, what is a cell, what is the theory of the cell, what is the cell division, what is the structure of the cell. If you have not read that article, then go and read that article first. In this article we are going to read about the cell organelles, what are the organelles inside the cell and how they work.
There are two types of cells found inside our body, first moving cell, second non-moving cell. Moving cells can move anywhere in our body such as sperm and ovum and non-moving cells cannot move anywhere like neuron which is present in our brain. There is a membrane outside our cell called cell membrane, it is present in both animal and plant cells. A different type of membrane is found in the plant cell called cell wall, which is made of cellulose, with the help of cellulose, plant cells cook their food. Liquid is found inside the cell, which is called cytoplasm, which is discovered by Purkinje, about 85% of water is present in the cytoplasm.
Mitochondria:- Mitochondria is also called power house of the cell, which was discovered by Altman in 1886. The Krebs cycle runs inside the mitochondria, due to which energy is made, according to which one glucose energy of 38 ATP is made. This is the part of cell organelles.
Golgi Body:- When energy is generated in our body through the Krebs cycle, then the Golgi body works to transport that energy throughout our body. If there is a shortage of energy anywhere in our body, then the Golgi body fulfils that lack of energy. This is the part of cell organelles.
Endoplasmic Reticulum:- Endoplasmic reticulum is made up of 2 types of reticulum. First smooth endoplasmic reticulum second rough endoplasmic reticulum. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum produces fat while the rough endoplasmic reticulum produces proteins. The ribosome is found in the rough endoplasmic reticulum which makes proteins. This is the part of cell organelles.
Ribosome:- The ribosome makes proteins, so it is called a protein factory, 20 amino acids combine to form a protein. Out of 20 amino acids, 10 amino acids are present in our body while 10 amino acids come from food.
Nucleus:- The nucleus is found in the centre of the cell which is 90% made up of protein and 10% is made up of DNA and RNA. The nucleus is discovered by Robert Brown in 1831. The function of the nucleus inside the cell is to guide all the organelles properly whether it is doing our work or not. The main work inside our cell is done by the nucleus. This is the part of cell organelles.
Lysosome:- Lysosomes are also called suicide bags which are made up of hydrolytic enzymes which look like a circular structure inside our cell. Christian de Duve discovered lysosomes in 1958. When any organelle inside our cell does not work properly, it destroys the lysosome so that it can be rebuilt and do its work properly. This is the part of cell organelles.
Centrosome:- It works for cell division in the cell, it was discovered in 1888 AD by a scientist named Theodore Boveri. The highest number of centrosomes in our body is found in the liver, due to which the cell division is more there and the least is found in the neuron, due to which the cell division is very less there. This is the part of cell organelles.
The person who has a more number of centrosomes in the body will have more amount of cell division and the person who has a smaller number of centrosomes inside his body will have very less cell division in his body. When a person gets a disease called sugar, the centrosome in his body is not able to work highly, so whenever you go to a doctor for an operation, he checks the sugar.