In the earlier article, we had read about the cell, what is a cell and Organelles of cell. If you have not read that article, then go and read that article first. In this article we are going to read about the Botany, in botany we discussed about plants. Theophrastus is called the father of Botany. In botany we are going to read about root and stem. So, let’s start: –
The root associated from the seed which has grown underground. Its lower part is called radicle, the development of the seed takes place from the radicle itself. The largest root of the tree is called Tap root, which has down to earth, due to tap root, the root remains standing for many years. There are threads around the tap root, which are called root hairs, in tree plants, it works to absorb water or absorb nutrients.
The root has 2 parts, the first tap root which protects the plants from falling or keeps them standing for years. Second root hair, whose main function is to absorb water, as if you put manure, water etc., in the tree plant, then the root hair does the work of absorbing it, due to which the trees grow. We can say to the root hair that it works to bring food to the tree plant.
Another root is found in the tree plant which is found outside the ground, it is called Adventcius Root. It provides internal support to the tree; it can also be called the second root of the tree. After some time, it falls automatically, cutting it does not dry the tree. Its main function is to maintain balance, you must have seen that the huge tree has an adventcius root, which maintains the balance of the whole tree so that the tree does not fall even when there is a strong storm.
The stem is found in the seed in which the root is not found, the development of the stem takes place through the plumule. You must have seen that the upper part of the tree plant is quite spread, this tree is due to the node and internode inside the plant’s stem. The node and the internode are found in the stem, wherever the node is present, a branch of the tree emerges from it, hence the tree plants are so spread. The tree also does 1% photosynthesis in the plant stem. You must have seen that when the autumn season comes, almost all the leaves of the tree fall, then at that time the process of photosynthesis is done by the stem.
There are three types of stems
The plant whose stem is in the air or is out of the ground, it is called aerial stem. Most of the trees and plants we see are all aerial stems like mango stem, papaya stem etc. In certain plants, the aerial stems or buds get modified to perform special functions like climbing production, protection, food storage…etc.
A plant whose stem is half in the ground and half outside the ground, that is called a semi-aerial stem. This type of stem is weak. As you must have seen, the stem of the grass is half in the ground and half outside the ground. Stems are weak, therefore lie prostrate on the ground on my get partially buried in the soil. The plants bearing such stem are called creepers.
There are some such stems which are found completely underground and it is also spread under the ground, it is called underground stem. When you must have seen the stem of turmeric, then the stem of turmeric is spread inside the ground.
Note:- When you are asked that carrot has a root whereas turmeric has a stem, why? So, you should know its difference, you can tell its difference with the help of node and internode. Botany