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Route of Drug administration
A route of drug administration in pharmacology is the path by which drug/medicine or any other substance itaken into the body.
Route of administration is an important part of any medical treatment plan. It is the way in which a drug or other therapeutic agent is delivered to the patient’s body. The route of administration determines how quickly and effectively the drug will reach its target site, and can have a significant impact on the efficacy and safety of a medication.
Classification of route of Drug administration
1. External route of drug administration
External means GIT, when any drug is pass through GIT and reach into the blood is called external route of administration. The route of administration determines how quickly and effectively the drug will reach its target site, and can have a significant impact on the efficacy and safety of a medication.
Types of external route of drug administration:
1. Oral route of administration
This is the oldest and simplest method for drug administration. When any drug is given through mouth and pass through GIT is called oral drugs. These are some examples of oral drugs: tablet, capsule, solution(syrup), emulsion, suspension and powder.
Advantage of oral drugs
1. This is the cheap and cost effective
2. It is easily available.
3. Not expert required for their administration.
4. Easily taken by mouth.
5. Safe and more convenient.
Disadvantage of oral drugs
1. Bioavailability is very less.
2. Drug is first pass metabolize.
3. Difficult to intake for inject and elder.
4. Unconscious patient can’t take the drug.
5. Very slow response.
2. Sublingual route of administration
Where the dosage form is placed under the tongue. Rapidly absorbed by sublingual mucosa. Sublingual route of administration is a method of delivering medication directly into the bloodstream through the mucous membrane under the tongue. It is used for medications that need to be absorbed quickly by the body, such as those used for treating allergies or asthma.
Advantage of sublingual route of drug administration
2. Quick termination.
3. First pass avoided.
4. Drug absorption is quick.
Disadvantage of sublingual route of drug administration
1. Unplayable and bitter drug.
2. Inconvenient for patients.
3. Irritation of oral mucosa.
4. Large quantities are not given.
5. Few drugs are absorbed.
3. Buccal route of administration
Where the dosage form is placed between gums and inner lining of the cheek absorbed by buccal mucosa. This route of administration is becoming increasingly popular due to its convenience, safety, and effectiveness. It is used for medications that need to be absorbed quickly by the body.
Advantage of buccal route of drug administration
1. Avoid first pass effect.
2. Rapid absorption.
3. Drug stability.
Disadvantage of buccal route of drug administration
1. Inconvenient for patients.
2. Small dose limit.
2. parenteral route of drug administration
The term parenteral means outside from the intestinal route it means even drug is not passing through the gastro intestinal route parenteral administration is given by injection inside the body.
Types of parenteral route
1. Intravenous route
Intravenous route is directly in certain into veins by injection. The bioavailability of “IV” routes is 100% and there is no loss of drug by first pass metabolism. There on set of action is very quick.
Advantage of intravenous route
1. Quick on set of action.
2. 100% bioavailability.
3. No first pass metabolism.
4. Less amount of drug is required.
Disadvantage of intravenous route
1. In intravenous route drug patient full unconscious.
2. It create pain during injection.
3. Cell necrosis can occur at the site of injection.
4. For intravenous route administration expert is required.
2. Intra-muscular route
Intra-muscular drug is not directly injected into the blood, it is given into muscle and then it releases into the blood. This drugs whose practical size is bigger, it is given by intra-muscular route. When drug is in certain into muscle then create a tissue deposit and after dissolving the drug release into blood.
Advantage of intra-muscular route
2. Rapid onset of action.
3. Mild irritants can be given.
4. First pass avoided.
5. Gastric factors can be avoided.
Disadvantage of intra-muscular route
1. Only up to 10ml drug given.
4. Nerves damage.
3. Intradermal route of administration
The intradermal route of administration is a method of delivering drugs or other substances directly into the skin. This route of administration is used to deliver vaccines, medications, and other substances such as allergens and antigens.
4. Intra-articular route of administration
This route of administration is used to deliver vaccines, medications, and other substances such as allergens and antigens. It is also used in diagnostic tests such as allergy testing and tuberculosis testing. The intradermal route has advantages over other routes of administration, including increased bioavailability, faster onset of action, and improved safety profile.
3. Topical routes of drug administration
It is the simplest route, in which drug is applied only on a particular area or directly on a site of action. When drug is applied externally without blood, then it is called typical route of administration. Topical drug applies on the skin surface and different external body cavities.
When topically drug the skin then it reaches into the systemic circulation by absorption mechanism. The inner lining of body cavity is made by mucosa layer and drug is absorb through mucosa layer and reach into blood.
Advantage routes of drug administration
1. It is apply for local action.
2. Where is less chance of side effect.
3. Easy to remove, if drug is wrong.
4. Topical drug can apply to all age group and unconscious patient.
Disadvantage of topical routes of drug administration
1. it gives dilated.
2. Lotion and suppository is irritating for patients.