Pharmacological terms – Agonist, Antagonist, Receptor, Addiction, Tolerance, Tachyphylaxis and allergy, with best notes(1)

Pharmacological terms

Pharmacological terms are the study of drugs and their effects on the body. It is a complex field that requires a deep understanding of the various terms used to describe different types of drugs and their effects. In this article, we will explore some of the most commonly used pharmacological terms and how they can be used to understand drug action. We will also discuss how these terms are used in clinical practice and research. Finally, we will look at some examples of pharmacological terms in use today.

1. Receptor

Those binding sites in which drug attached, then activate it and give a pharmacological action. It is based on lock key mechanism. Receptor are the proteinaceous structure which are behave like an active side, they are present surface of any organ on the receptor, when drug bind they gives pharmacological action and response.

2. Agonist

These are those drug/substance that binds to a receptor and causes the same pharmacological action as the substance that normally binds to the receptor, like- heroine, morphine and etc. Agonist are those chemical molecules which bind with the receptor and give 100% same response like another natural chemical. The agonist efficiency 100% and their potential is also 100%. It is the one of most important pharmacological terms which is use in pharmacology

3. Antagonist

These are those drug/substance which has a similar structure like agonist and bind with the receptor but they do not give any pharmacological action, instead they block the receptor and inhibit the agonist natural substance to bind with receptor. They are efficiency is 100% and their potential is 0%.

It is of two types:

1. Competitive antagonist

These are those antagonists which have similar structure like agonist. It can block receptor 100%, so their efficiency is 100%. It inhibits the full response of agonist. There is a competition between antagonist and agonist by increasing the concentration of agonist can overcome competitive antagonist activity, like- morphine.

2. Non-competitive antagonist

These are those antagonists which bind to an allosteric (non-agonist) site on the receptor to prevent activation of the receptor. They have different structure then agonist and their efficiency are less than 100% and their potential is 0%.

4. Addiction

Pharmacological terms - Mimprovement

Addiction of any drug is a drug abuse, this is basically when we take any drug for long time duration, then after some time our body shows same on usual physical behavior or some unusual physical changes in our body, that is called addiction. It is a psychological & physical inhibition to stop consuming drug even drug cause harm. It is considered as brain disorder. It is the one of most important pharmacological terms which is use in pharmacology

5. Tolerance

It is diminished effect (response) of any drug, when drug give repeatedly for long duration in the same dose. It happens when a person, no longer response to drug in the way they did it first, so it takes a higher dose of the drug to achieve the same effect as when the person first used it. Example- excess use of paracetamol. It is the one of most important pharmacological terms which is use in pharmacology

6. Dependence

Dependence of any drug is defined as the any unusual response of our body which becomes habitual for any drugs. When we take any drug like- analgesic, morphine for long duration than our body makes dependents for this drug and when we do not receive these drugs, then in particular time it may causes unusual effect such as headache, nausea, discomfort etc.

7. Tachyphylaxis

Rapid decrease in the response of drug upon repeated administration of same dose in short intervals. It is also known as acute tolerance. Ex- Ephedrine and Nicotine. It is the one of most important pharmacological terms which is use in pharmacology

8. Allergy

Some drug substance causes the unwanted side effect or adverse effect to our body. An abnormal reaction of an immune system to a medication/drug. Most common form of allergy reaction are skin reaction, such as rashes and itching etc.

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