Table of Contents
Medicinal chemistry and its History
Definition of medicinal chemistry
It is the branch of chemistry, that is intersection of organic chemistry, pharmacology and various other biological specialties. It is a discipline that enclose the design, development and synthesis of pharmaceutical drugs. It also involves the studying and existing drug in their biological activity (properties) and their structure activity relationship [SAR].
It is the branch of chemistry in which the features of biological, medical and pharmaceutical science studied is a termed a medical chemistry. The study of invention, discovery, design, identification and preparation of biological active compound their metabolism made of action at the molecular level and the structure activity relationship are also covered under this branch.
Medicinal chemistry is involving a studying the existing drug their biological properties and quantitative structure activity relationship [QSAR]. The medical compound is basically organic compound, which many include small organic molecules and bio polymers.
History and development of medicinal chemistry
The history of medicinal chemistry consists of Idea, knowledge and took having advantage modern knowledge there are no exceptions in the remarkable advance made in the fixed of medicinal chemistry.
1. Drug of antiquity
The ancient civilization of the Chinese, the Hindus, found to be that they used therapeutic plants and minerals for the treatment. They also chewed coca leaves (containing cocaine) and used mushrooms as hallucinogens. Some natural products used in history such as Opium, Cinchona.
2. The 19th century age of innovation and chemistry
The knowledge of chemistry expanded in the 19th century which also extended the previously is established herbal pharmacopoeia. The chemical analysis techniques were advanced by the Kolbe in 1845 synthesized acidic acid and Berthelot in 1856 synthesized methane and together they both established the stage for organic chemistry.
3. The 20th century and the pharmaceutical industry
The synthetic chemotherapeutical agent was found to be effective in protozoal and spiritual disease. Domagk stage that prontosil cancer the systemic gram-positive bacterial infection in human and animals. A water-soluble powder with antibacterial proteins higher and toxicity lower than any know chemotherapeutic agent was made when flaming discovered penicillin in 1923 and Florey chain examined it in 1941.
4. Development of medicinal chemistry in 21 centuries
Our ancestors from hemiacetals, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and China herbal remedies for treating sick people since then medicinal discovery has come a long was the leading manufacture such as- F Bayer & company and frozen fab-manufacture medicines. In the 20th century ennlich came up with the receptor theory and this becomes influential to make understand, now drug bind to receptor & based on their chemical structure & compositions.
5. Histochemical properties in rotation biological action
The biological acting of targeted drug molecule is dependent on its physiochemical characteristic essentially in nature & type of functional moieties and also the spatial arrangement of such group in the molecule modulating the structure of drug implies introduction, elimination or substitution of certain group of the drugs.