Introduction of thiazole – physical properties, synthesis, chemical reactions and medicinal uses in easy language

Introduction of thiazole

Introduction of thiazole, The term ‘thiazole‘ refer to a large family is derivatives. It has a molecular formula of C3H3NS. It can be related to the simple tertiary aliphatic amines. Thiazole, an organic compound with a five-membered ring containing both nitrogen and sulfur atoms, plays a crucial role in various fields such as pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and materials science. Its unique structure and diverse chemical properties have made it a valuable building block for the synthesis of numerous biologically active compounds.

Introduction of thiazole

Thiazole derivatives have exhibited promising pharmacological activities, including antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and anticonvulsant properties. These compounds have been extensively studied for their potential applications in drug discovery and development.

Physical properties of thiazole

1. Thiazole is a pale-yellow coloured liquid with a boiling point of 117°C.

2. It has a pyridine like odour.

3. This ring structure is found in vitamin B, & also in some antibiotics.

4. It is used for preparing different sulpha drugs.

Synthesis of thiazole

1. Gabriel synthesis (from alpha-acyl amino ketones)

Alpha-acyl amino ketones undergo cyclization in presence of P2S5 and strong mineral acid H2SO4 followed by dehydration.

2. Hantzsch thiazole synthesis

Condensation of alpha-halo ketones with thioamides.

3. Cook–Heilbron thiazole synthesis

Condensation of alpha-aminonitrile  with CS2.

Chemical reactions of thiazole

1. Reactions with acids (Protonation)

Thiazole accepts proton, act as base and forms thiazolium cation.

2. Reduction

Thiazole ring is resistant to many reducing agents. However, raney nickel reduces it and opens the ring.

3. Bromination

4. Nitration

Medicinal uses of thiazole

1. It is used for manufacturing biocides, fungicides, pharmaceutical & dyes.

2. Thiabendazole is used for treating ear infection.

3. Thiamine is used as beri-beri.

4. It may also be used to treat pinworm, hookworm & roundworm infections.

5. Sulfathiazole is a short acting sulfonamide antibiotic.

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