Table of Contents
Introduction of purine
Introduction of purine, the word purine was derived from German chemist Emil Fischer in 1844. He synthesized it for the first time in 1898. The starting material for the reaction sequence was uric acid, which had been isolated from kidney stones in 1770. A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consist of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
Purine is a naturally occurring compound that plays a crucial role in various biological processes. Found in both plants and animals, purine serves as an essential component of DNA, RNA, and energy molecules such as ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Its importance lies in its ability to contribute to the proper functioning of cells and the overall health of living organisms.
The two primary purines found in nature are adenine and guanine, which are key building blocks for genetic material. In addition to their role in nucleic acids, purines also serve as precursors for important molecules like cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and coenzymes involved in cellular metabolism. Furthermore, they have been identified as essential components of certain vitamins and signalling molecules within the body.
Physical properties of purine
1. It is highly soluble in water.
2. It have melting point 217°C.
3. It forms salt with acid.
4. Purine is very weak acid & also a very weak base.
Synthesis of purine
1. From uric acid
Uric acid was reacted with PCl5 to give 2,6,8-trichloropurine, which was converted with HI & PH4I to give 2,6-duodopurine. The product was reduced to purine using Zn dust.
2. Traube method
The method of consist of reaction between 4,5-diaminopyrimidine with formic acid to produced imidazole ring & formyl derivative is ring closed by heating alone or heating with sodium salt.
3. From imidazole
When 4-amino-1-methylimidazole-5-carbonamide treated with ethyl acetoacetate at 170-180°C then 7-methylpurine is formed.
Medicinal uses of purine
1. Acyclovir, valacyclovir and ganciclovir are used to treat infections caused by certain types of viruses.
2. Mercaptopurine is a medication used for cancer & autoimmune disease.
3. Caffeine is a CNS stimulant used to restore mental alertness or wakefulness during fatigue or drowsiness.
4. Theophylline is used to treat lung disease such as asthma & bronchitis.
Derivatives of purine
Purine derivatives are used in pharmaceutical & agricultural industry. Some of the pharmaceutically important purine derivatives are:
1. Mercaptopurine: it is used for the treatment of cancer & autoimmune diseases.
2. Alopurinol: it is a drug used in treatment of gout contains purine structure.